Cholera Platform

Against cholera

UNICEF Cholera factsheet

Burkina Faso - Cholera factsheet


Since 1990, there have been notable cholera outbreaks in Burkina Faso in 1995, 1998 and 2005 (Fig 1).Between 2005 and 2013, epidemiological surveillance reported 1,213 cases and 25 fatalities (case fatality rate ≈ 2%)1.The largest number of cases have been reported in the Centre region containing the capital Ouagadougou (82%), which is likely related to water access. Other notable outbreaks are reported in the Sahel region which borders Niger (Tab I. and Fig. 2).

Depuis 1990, des épidémies importantes ont été enregistrées au Burkina Faso notamment en 1995, 1998 et 2005 (Fig.1). Entre 2005 et 2013, la surveillance épidémiologique a notifié 1 213 cas et 25 décès, soit un taux de létalité
de 2 %. Le plus grand nombre de cas a été enregistré dans la région du Centre contenant la capitale Ouagadougou (82 %), ce qui est probablement liée à l’accès à l’eau. D’autres épidémies notables ont été enregistrées dans la région du Sahel à la frontière avec le Niger (Tab I. et Fig. 2).

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Outbreaks during the past eight years have been predominantly reported in two areas: 1) in the capital Ouagadougou and its periphery (Koudougou), which may be linked to water access and sanitation condi­tions, and 2) in the districts bordering Niger (Dori, Gorom-Gorom). Cross-border activities will therefore be crucial in the North East of the country.

In those two areas, preparedness and response plans should be developed and implemented including: (1) strengthening early detection and rapid response systems of which community based sur­veillance and cross-border alert; (2) setting up coordi­nation mechanisms across the sectors and borders; (3) building capacity on outbreak management; (4) targeted pre-positioning of supplies and (5) preparing communications messages and plans (Tab. II).

Sustainable Water, Sanitation and Hygiene activities should be a priority in neighbourhoods (Ouagadou­gou) and the districts regularly affected with long outbreaks (Tab. II, Type 1). An in-depth WASH and epidemiological study at lower scale in urban and rural settings would enable a contextual WASH dia­gnosis and help define the role of vaccination.

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