WHO Cholera country profile
- In WHO Cholera country profile
- Mis à jour : 20 avril 2016
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Cholera Background History:
Niger had several severe outbreaks from 1970 to 2011 but without periodical pattern. However since 1994, there is a yearly occurrence except for 1998 and 2009. The largest outbreak occurred in 1971 with 9265 cases and 2344 deaths with a very high case fatality rate (CFR) of 25.3% . It affected particularly the towns situated along the river and fishing villages. Most cholera affected areas were in the South of Niger: Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Tahoua, Tillaberi and Zinder.
In 1984, Niger notified 3788 cases and 308 deaths. The CFR (8.1%) was particularly high because of difficult access to proper health care, nomadic life-style, drought and malnutrition.
The period from 1991 to 2004 was characterized by high levels of transmission and many deaths, cholera also appeared in periurban areas that were previously spared. In 2004, the last important outbreak appeared with 2178 cases and 57 deaths (CFR 2.6%) associated with severe drought cycles and a grasshopper invasion. Improved preparedness for control has been observed.
From 1 January until 12 November 2006, Niger reported 1212 cases and 79 deaths with a CFR of 6.52%. Between January and July, the most affected areas were in the south-west of Niger: Tillaberi, Niamey, Dosso and Maradi. Most cases occurred in the region of Tillaberi in the district of Kollo and Say. In May 2006 the CFR reached 25% in the region of Dosso (20 c incl. 5 d).
Due to increased intensive contact to health professionals and adequate treatment the situation was rapidly brought under control. In August 2006, excessive rains were reported in the regions of Agadez, Zinder, Tahoua, Dosso and Tillaberi and from August 21, there has been a resurgence of cholera cases in the regions with poor water and sanitations facilities: Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey, Maradi, Tahoua and Zinder.
In 2007, between 25 June and 29 July, Niger reported 24 cases and 2 deaths with a CFR of 8.3%. All cases were located in Aguié district (Maradi region). For all other weeks of 2007, Niger reported zero case and acknowledged intensified efforts on environmental management including improved access to safe water and proper sanitation as being an important factor in the absence of case.
In 2008, Niger reported 948 cases and 70 deaths (CFR 7.4%) between 1 January and 7 December 2008. The first cases were reported in Zinder region (district of Tanout) on March 3. Then Maradi region (districts of Guidan-Roumdji, Maradi, Mayahi, Tessaoua) reported 176 cases starting on 26 May. Tahoua region (Birni N'Konni, Keita) reported 279 cases starting 8 September and Dosso region (Boboye) only reported 10 cases after 22 September. The highest CFR, 11% was registered in Zinder.
In 2009, no cases were reported from Niger.
In 2010, Niger reported 1154 cases including 66 deaths (CFR 5.72%). Most cases were reported from Diffa, Zinder and Maradi., respectively starting during week 26, 33 and 34.
In 2011, Niger has experienced a cholera outbreak which started in March. As of 30 November , a total of 2 409 cases including 60 deaths (CFR 2.5%) were reported from six provinces: Maradi, Dosso, Tillabéri, Niamey, Tahoua and Zinder.
In 2012, Niger reported its worse outbreak since 1971 with 5’285 cases including 110 deaths (CFR 2.1%) from January to early December, (in 1984, 1991 and 1996 close to 4’000 cases were reported) The majority of cases (90%) were reported in Tillaberi region. The second most affected region was Tahoua (9%). Sporadic cases were reported in Dosso, Maradi and Niamey.