WHO Cholera country profile
- In WHO Cholera country profile
- Mis à jour : 20 avril 2016
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Cholera Background History:
The current cholera pandemic started in 1961, reaching West Africa and Nigeria late 1970. The first recorded cases of cholera in Nigeria occurred in a village near Lagos, on 26 December 1970 leading to an important epidemic of 22 931 cases and 2945 deaths with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 12.8% during 1971.
Between 1972 and 1990, Nigeria reported only very few cases. In 1991, 59'478 cases and 7'654 deaths have been reported. The CFR was 12.9% which remains the highest rate reported by the country to date. Cases started to be registered in January and among the first affected states were Kano, Akwa Ibom, Bauchi, Niger and Oyo. By September, the disease had spread to 19 of the 21* States including the Federal Capital (*in 1991, Nigeria only had 21 States). Vibrio cholerae El Tor, Ogawa was identified.
In March 1999, an outbreak of cholera was reported in Kano Municipal Local Government Area (LGA), Kano State. The outbreak was traced to the interruption of the domestic water supply for some days which forced people to use any water available. A total of 815 cases with 28 deaths have been recorded up to 6 May. The outbreak also spread to Tofa LGA where 182 cases with 19 deaths were recorded over two weeks beginning in late April and further to Adamawa State (76 cases, 18 deaths) and Edo State (49 cases 24 deaths). Starting in November 2001, 2050 cases including 80 deaths were reported by 18 LGAs.
In November 2002, Kano reported 176 cases and 12 deaths. Kano State seems to be particularly affected by cholera outbreaks.During the first week of January 2007, suspected cholera cases were reported in Delta State affecting the following LGAs: Ughelli South, Bomadi, Oshimili South and Burutu.
In October 2007, the Obi LGA in Benue State reported 60 cases of gastroenteritis including one death. In December 2007, Gbajimba, in Guma LGA, (Benue State) reported 36 cases including 9 deaths of "suspected" cholera cases. In both cases, the stool samples were sent to the laboratory but the results were not shared with WHO.
In 2008, Nigeria reported 5'140 cases including 247 deaths and in 2009, Nigeria reported 13'691 cases including 431 deaths affecting mostly the eastern states of the country