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The significant decline in the incidence of cholera in 2015 has continued throughout 2016, especially in the Lake Chad Basin: 884 cases, including 38 deaths (4.3% case-fatality rate). However, the case-fatality ratio, well above the WHO threshold of 1%, illustrated that surveillance and management were not performed satisfactorily. The situation has remained essentially the same in terms of transmission in the South Guinean Gulf (Benin, Togo, Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire) with 1,771 cases including 16 deaths (case fatality rate of 0, 9%) in 2016. Active transmissions at the end of 2016, in this basin, started in the town of Cotonou in Benin, from the beginning of August 2016. With the rainy season, access to drinking water sources was reduced; several outbreaks and alerts in various countries were even reported. In Benin, information on the appearance of the first cases was transmitted late (more than a week). This type of delay is usually critical, and based on past experience, usually leads to an outbreak situation. Indeed, the earlier the declaration, the easier it is to control and stop the transmission, especially when it affects urban settings where the density of population and active migration patterns are such that control measures will be very difficult to be implemented effectively. In the case of this outbreak, the organization of the response in Benin was tedious and did not allow for a more diligent response. Lagos and its surroundings in Nigeria also began to report cases and then gradually spread to Togo and Ghana via the extremely dense pendular movements (by boat and by road) on this Lagos - Abidjan coastal axis. The actors of Togo were able to put in place an immediate response from the first case. There were then only 2 cases to be deplored. In Ghana, however, the situation was once again somewhat longer, and the city of Cape Coast in Ghana had remained in outbreak since early 2017, end of January, when the end of transmission was reached.